History and References
Construction of real_to_virtual converter has been the direct cause of Virtual Respiratory System (VRS) creation . Such a converter enables us to connect a real tube of spirometer or respirator with ... a computer program simulating the respiratory system  (also an artificial heart could be connected with a model of the cardiovascular system, for example). Standardization of respirators and spirometers with a ‘Standard Virtual Patient’ could be one of future applications of such connection.
A computer model has to accurately reflect respiratory physiology to be sure that a virtual patient may replace a real one in different cases. Thus, such a model must be complex. Formulas used in our VRS, which describes mathematically knowledge related to the respiratory system mechanics, are presented in detail in  (in fact, VRS consists of two models: the model of mechanics and a model of gas exchange and transfer in the respiratory and circulatory systems ). Some details are also in  (free on-line access).
VRS has been utilized in many own investigations, such as: comparison of different artificial ventilation modes [7, 8], analysis of influence of spontaneous breathing support with CPAP on breathing frequency , analysis of cardio-respiratory interaction [8, 9], or analysis of unusual method of artificial ventilation without lungs movement (analysis of conditions of proper blood oxygenation through motionless lungs with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal ).
VRS may be of even greater significance in medical education. Tgol.e-spirometry™ system is an example. Intensive care may be another example .
- Darowski M, Kozarski M, Gólczewski T. Model studies on respiratory parameters for different lung structures. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering 20(2), 2000, 67-77
- Gólczewski T, Kozarski M, Darowski M. The respirator as a user of virtual lungs. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering 23(2), 2003, 57-66
- Gólczewski T., Darowski M.. Virtual respiratory system for education and research: simulation of expiratory flow limitation for spirometry, Int J Artif Organs 2006; 29: 961–972
- Gólczewski T, Darowski M. The virtual cardio-respiratory system — a sub-model of gas exchange and transfer. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering. 28(1), 2008: 29-40
- T. Gólczewski, M. Darowski. Virtual respiratory system in investigation of CPAP influence on optimal breathing frequency in obstructive lungs disease. Nonlinear Biomedical Physic. 2007, 1:6
- Gólczewski T., Darowski M. Influence of ventilatory mode on respiration parameters — investigation on virtual lungs. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering 23(3), 2003, 63-72.
- Darowski M, Gólczewski T, Michnikowski M. Choice of proper lung ventilation method. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, 26(1), 2006, 21-37
- Gólczewski T, Zielinski K, Palko KJ, Ferrari G, Darowski M. Influence of ventilation mode on blood oxygenation analysis with lungs and cardiovascular models. Int J Artif Organs 2007; 30: 719
- Gólczewski T, Darowski M. Simulation of lungs-respirator system, in: Modeling Cardiovascular System and Mechanical Circulatory Support ed. Claudio De Lazzari, CNR, Roma, 2007: 77-92
- T. Gólczewski. Gas exchange in virtual respiratory system — simulation of ventilation without lungs movement. Int J Artif Organs 2007; 30: 1047-1056
- Gólczewski T, Darowski M. Virtual case study: Improving of blood oxygenation that fell after position change of an older patient. Int J Artif Organs, 30 (8), 2007: 718
- Gólczewski T, Darowski M. Virtual respiratory system and its use in testing of artificial ventilation and ventilatory support methods. Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems 2005; 1: 65-72